Presence and Preservation of Pazirik Carpet
Archaeologist Sergei Rudenko and his assistants were found during the excavations in the fifth grave chamber of Pasalik Kurgans between 1947 and 1949 at the foot of the Altai Mountains. Kurgans found in Pasalik Since the Altai kept ice in this cold climate, the artifacts extracted from these kurgans have survived to this day. The rich works of art found in these kurgans were unearthed. The majority of these finds are exhibited in the Ermitaj museum. After removing the ready made carpet, it was washed by special methods, dried and sprayed with a special mixture containing alcohol, gelatin and glycerin. Paşıkı Carpet has been exhibited in the Hermitage Museum of St. Petersburg since 1950 without any further care.
The wool carpet discovered in the Pozitık Kurgans and dated to the 5th century BC is the oldest known carpet in the world known as Parşık Carpet. The dimensions of the carpet are 195 * 205 cm and come to approximately 4 square meters. Very fine wool is woven and each cm. 36 Gordes node was detected in the square. This knot density shows that the carpet was made with great skill during its period. Colors are soft and mature. While the floor is dark red, some of the shadows are light blue and red, and the carpet is yellow. Rudenko said that a skilled carpetmaker could make 2000 knots in one day. There are a total of 1,250,000 knots, 36,000 per square centimeter. From this point of view, we can say that Paşık Carpets are the result of a monthly study of at least 18 months. This carpet is similar to Turkmen carpets in terms of style, size and shape. The ropes used in the weaving of the carpet are wool and are very thin and very twisted. The motifs are connected to each other in perfect harmony.
World's First Carpet - Pozitık Carpet
The central part of the carpet is filled with gilded shapes and lotus (Nilufer) ornaments that are displayed in rows. In this central part of the work, there is a four-leaf flower motif within 24 square areas according to some researchers. However, we believe that it has four directions and eight parish motifs. Although it is not proven, there are also views that associate these 24 frames with 24 Oguz Boyu. Researchers like Jettmar also claimed that the carpet was a play rug, considering the divided squares in the center of this carpet, which K.Erdmann thought was 'saddle cover'. It is suggested that the rosette or triangular motifs on some points of the carpet are the starting and ending points of the game. He argued that this game was played with dice in the form of a primitive chess.
The section of 24 squares is surrounded by five bands (water channels), three of which are narrow in width. The first represents an eagle-headed lion-shaped motif. This . The head of the Gryphon is turned backwards and its tongue is visible from its beak. The head of this fictitious creature is raised, and its wings and tail are completely fitted to the square.
The second band reveals a group of elk (Deer type) walking in a single row from right to left. This deer (according to N.Diyarbekirli) is a species called ces Alces Machis yaşayan living in Central Asia. This breed deer is not found in Iran or Asia Minor. There are depictions of Turkish Animal Style in the figures on the deer..
In the next lane, there is a row of Turkish cavalry advancing in the form of an imposing regiment in the opposite direction of the deer. The horsemen walking on horseback and riding on the horses are presented with a headdress of the kind that is worn in Central Asia, as well as boots and trousers with the clothes of Inner Asia. The saddle covers on the horses remind us of the saddle covers removed from the other parchment kurgans. All horses are gemini. Ornamental plates are visible on some ships. Horses' backs are made of felt cover. These embroidered covers placed on the back of the animal to get the sweat are called '' Cross' 'or' 'slur' '' in Central Asia and '' slippers' 'or' 'sweat felt' 'in Anatolia. it is outstanding. This depiction was made under the influence of steppe communities. Mythological, religious and symbolic meanings of ponytail tying or cutting have existed among Turkish societies for centuries. The pars stamp on the carpet is also noteworthy. In addition, Pars is the state stamp of the former capital of Kazakhstan Almaty and Tatarstan.
Another aspect of Turkish Art in Pasalik Carpet is that the depictions on the carpet are made with the person who will look at the carpet. In other words, wherever the audience goes to the carpet, the figures are changed according to the person's point of view. This style, which is common in Turkish art, was also used in miniatures. In fact, we see the same style of placing Ottoman gravestones facing the audience. Pozitık Carpet is colored with wool dyed with root dyes. The main floor from the inside is the center, the first border and the last two borders are red, the figure of the deer (deer) and the next border are yellow. The motifs are red, yellow and sometimes colored with blue.
When the carpet was first removed, there were differences of opinion about who belonged to the Scythian, Assyrian, Iranian, Chinese or Mongolian tribes. However, while our carpets were exhibited at the Russian Leningrad / St. Petersburg Hermitage Museum, the findings, artifacts, cuts of horses' tails and some works found in the Turkish alphabet which were written in a similar text to the Göktürk Alphabet prove that the carpet belongs to the Turks.
Turkish knot known as the '' Gordes '' knot called the double-knot technique woven according to the period of Paşık Carpets has a very advanced technique. (One end of the colored wool yarn twisted in the Gördes knot is knotted on the other end of an bee.) This proves that carpet-making is a history dating back to much older times in the Turks. While the Iranian node is asymmetrical, the Turkish node is symmetrical. The symmetrical nodes of Paşık Carpets prove that this carpet belongs to the Turks.
Other Turkish Carpets and Pozitık Carpets
Turkestan is undoubtedly an old weaving center. It is certain that there is a rich weaving tradition in the Middle Ages in the regions extending to this region and East Turkestan. The 1700-year-old Turkish woven carpets and various fabrics in Lou-lan and Lop-Nor (Temple of Budha) were unearthed during the excavations of Aurel Stein in 1906-1908. Today these carpets are exhibited in India-New Delhi and London-British Museum.
In 1913, A.Von Le Coq found a carpet in the room of a temple near the city of Kuça / Koço in the Turfan region. These carpets belonging to the period of Göktürk MS. It belongs to the 5-6 century. Today these carpets are exhibited in the Islamic Museum in Berlin. This carpet is knotted with wool material. In addition to the geometric patterns, the dragon figure is seen in the decorations. The Pashlik District is not far from here. Furthermore, the carpets woven in Kaş-gar, Hotan, Kuçar district Kuca and Turfan show that this oldest carpet region still continues its tradition. It is evident that the area where the Pazirik carpet was found reflects the character and culture of the Altai.
In terms of history and culture, we tried to explain that these kurgans were created by the Turks, and that the works here were not exported from other countries, and that many of the works including the Pazirik Carpet were created by the Turks. Erdmann, an art history expert, admitted in his last writings that P Paşıkı Carpet is woven with Turkish Loop and is a Turkish carpet '. There is also a woven sample of Gördes, which is very faithful to the pattern, color and weaving characteristics of Pasalik Carpet which is exhibited in the museum.
As a result, the motif layout of the Seljuk and Ottoman carpets and the Anatolian carpets woven today are similar to the floor diagram of the Central Asian Turkish carpets. The tradition of dividing the floor of the peshik rug into 24 equal squares is a scheme that appears even in felts woven in Central Asia. Seljuk Period Anatolian carpets are divided into squares and placed in geometric compositions resembles the ground scheme of the Great Seljuk carpets. The carpet floor that we saw in the Principalities Period was divided into two or more squares and the animal or plant motifs were embroidered in each square is based on the geometric order seen in Paşikli Carpet. Today, the tradition of Central Asia Turkish carpets and plain woven mats is continuing. This tradition was carried to Anatolia by the Great Seljuks and Anatolian Seljuks. Thanks to the Principalities and Ottomans it has survived to the present day.